Vitamin B12 is an essential water-soluble nutrient, necessary for DNA synthesis, red blood cell production, and neurological function. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in mood and memory, bone health, and fetal development.* Vitamin B12 is a necessary cofactor for the metabolism of homocysteine into methionine, and the subsequent formation of the universal methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) from methionine. Research has shown that many people can have difficulties metabolizing and absorbing vitamin B12, especially when digestive and/or intestinal functioning is suboptimal. Vitamin B12 deficiency is more common with age, hypochlorhydria, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), gastrointestinal bypass surgery, alcohol use, a vegetarian or vegan diet, and use of medications such as proton-pump inhibitors, metformin, and hormonal contraceptives. Genetic polymorphisms also may impact the availability of some forms of vitamin B12 to meet the body’s needs.* *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.