Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter found throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems and is well known for its importance in muscle contraction, attention, learning, memory, and stress. Acetylcholine released by the vagus nerve is essential to immune health due to its ability to downregulate cytokine expression in the spleen, liver, and gastrointestinal tract.
Acetyl-L-carnitine: Derivative of L-carnitine shown to increase plasma and brain levels of L-carnitine. L-carnitine facilitates energy production in mitochondria and provides antioxidant protection through its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species. Provides an acetyl group required for acetylcholine synthesis.
Choline bitartrate: Choline donor and precursor to acetylcholine. Choline is an essential nutrient important for cell health, methylation and lipid metabolism.
AlphaSize (Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine) is a patented choline donor and precursor to acetylcholine.
Huperzia serrata aerial parts (standardized to 1% to huperzine A) is a potent and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine in the synapse.